Thursday, February 20, 2020

Music paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words - 1

Music paper - Essay Example atthews band applies tragic irony, paradox that is representational and imagery in a bid to express the infinite struggle by human beings in pursuit of joy and the horrific occurrences underlying the extent of discontent in the society ( Additionally, the Matthew’s band inculcates multiple techniques in order to express their notions. They apply the concealed devices that allude to the other techniques through the entire masterpiece. They apply paradoxical statements, irony and oxymoron to expound on their notions. In a bid to express a contradictory notion, the band inculcates ironic imagery, paradox and mood departure as a refrain to express their sentiments in the song (Hayes). Notably, the application of imagery in the song kicks off in the beginning of the song where a picture of kids lying in a magnificent park on a beautiful day with sun shining on the grass is displayed. Then, the imagery translates immediately to that of a siren blaring and a house blazing ( This notion of imagery is purely ironic since a listener does not imagine of houses blazing and a beautiful day occurring consecutively. The emergent contrast between the two instances is pertinent. Another instance of ironic imagery is in the 3rd verse where two different people are involved, one enjoying a meal and the other starving. The eventual instance of ironic imagery is the one in the sixth verse where it espouses a kid trekking ten miles to school while another drops out (Lildrizzle). Mood is somehow a longer lasting emotion or feeling that differs from simple feelings in that they are not as intense and specific. The refrain inculcates a mood departure by altering the melody and the notions depicted in the song, comparing them to the present day life ( The refrain happens both in the middle and towards the end of the song. It alters the mood completely since the music increases tempo and the words are projected closer together for the need of implying that

Tuesday, February 4, 2020


IMPROVING JOB SATISFACTION AND MORAL THROUGH EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION - Essay Example Extrinsic motivators don’t do much in this regard that is why intrinsic motivators like satisfaction. Employees rate pleasant working conditions like a gift from the firm (Organ, 1988). In a study conducted by Burke and Wilcox (1969) it was found that a clear effect was attributable to openness in communication between superior and a subordinate; the greater openness of either superior or subordinate (or even both), the greater satisfaction of subordinate regarding five variables that directly depend on satisfaction. These comprise of â€Å"(1) Satisfaction with the Company, (2) Satisfaction with the Job, (3) Satisfaction with Performance Appraisal and Development Interview (climate for growth), (4) presence of a "Helping Relationship," and (5) Satisfaction with Supervisor† (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). This openness is more effective when initiated by the superior. When a superior initiates openness in conversation and behavior, the subordinate responds accordingly. The open ness doesn’t respond to any causal relationship (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). Communication is inevitable and absolutely essential for healthy functioning of an organization (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). Degree of openness in communication process is the key element that decides its effectiveness (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). An organization can cash in dividends by fostering effective communication and overcoming barriers to it (Burke & Wilcox, 1969). Summary Various studies have been conducted on recognizing patterns regarding job satisfaction. Obvious factors like personal preferences and the nature of job also play their part for an employee, but that is solely on employee’s discretion.... The author concludes that effective communication doesn’t need to be rigid and formal, in fact researches emphasize on the openness of communication and how it generates comfort level between superior and subordinate. Gone are the days of threatening an employee with firing unless certain benchmarks are met. These days the nature of work has changed dramatically, it is not possible anymore to impose rigid measuring frames to ‘qualify/quantify’ and employee’s performance. So under this added complexity at work, how employers cope with job frustration and boredom from employees? They bring in the motivational language. Job satisfaction increases productivity, the more the workforce considers themselves a part of the corporate the more they contribute. Now the question remains as what qualifies as a positive motivator and what constitutes as a failure. Incentives and perks has their importance as well as effective communication. Moreover, communication needs t o be effective in order to fulfill its purpose. The level openness in a talk between superiors and subordinates can achieve this effectiveness. This openness needs to be initiated by the superiors, as subordinates respond to this openness in a desired way. Such rapport creates comfort level at job. The easier the work environment becomes the low the job turnover will be. Job satisfaction is also related with employee participation in corporate dynamics. The more the employees involve in work place affairs, the greater is job satisfaction as well as performance.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Laser ablation technique

Laser ablation technique First laser ablation technique was invented in 1960. The history of laser ablation studies begins with the birth of the laser itself. Laser ablation is a technique of removing of material from superficial solid with the help of laser beam. The number of studies grows simultaneously in seventies and they got a great success but it was explored in the year 1985 with many applications for example laser medication, laser with mass spectrometry, laser with optical emission spectrometry and a thin film growth. Laser ablation-optical emission spectrometry (LA-OES) and laser ablation-mass spectrometry (LA-MS) had been investigated for quantitative and qualitative analysis of solid material. After this invention scientist has taken 20 years to explore the combination of laser sampling with a specific source capable of multi-element analysis laser ablation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.3LA-ICP-OES/MS technique is a non-destructive quantification of large number of sam ples so elements with low detection limit. Applications of LA-ICP-OES/MS give a great contribution in many field like archaeological, geological, environmental, forensic investigation and semiconductor industrial fields. The primary goal of laser ablation technique is to quantify element.2 There are many different pulse laser uses in ablation process. First laser which is used to ablate solid material for chemical quantify is ruby. This was achieved by Maiman of the Hughes Research Laboratory using a ruby crystal as the active medium.1 Now days Nd:YAG laser have been widely used in analytical science because it require little maintenance, easy to handle, and relatively cheaper. Basically ablation is affected by laser wavelength; there is a simple principal behind this technique, shorter the laser wavelengths gives higher the ablation rate and lower the fractionation. For Nd:YAGlasers,the fundamental wavelength is in the near-IR at 1064 nm. Year of first report on the different laser types and wavelengths for micro-scale analysis with ICP-MS3 Year Laser Wavelength Pulse duration 1985 Ruby 694 Ns 1992 Nd:YAG 1064 Ns 1993 Nd:YAG 266 Ns 1995 ArF 193 Ns 1996 KrF 248 Ns 1997 Nd:YAG 532 Ns 1997 XeCl 308 Ns 1998 Nd:YAG 213 Ns 2002 Ti:Sapphire ≈800 Fs 2003 F2 157 Ns 2003 Nd:YAG 193 Ns 2003 Ti:Sapphire ≈260 Fs In past there were many techniques tried for the sample introduction such as spark ablation, electro thermal vaporisation, direct sample insertion and laser ablation began to be used with ICP-MS. Laser pulses is use for ablate of solid material and carriage of the released material to the ICP in a gas flow, mostly argon is a best alternative to the nebulisation of aqueous sample solution. In addition laser ablation has a great advantage over other technique like reduce sample preparation; reduce spectral interference and rapid sample exchange.4 if we talk about the evolution of LA-ICP-MS in last few years many scientists work on a different field like geological applications of LA-ICP-MS, biological applications, metal, polymer, glass applications and they got a huge success. As we know that ruby was a first laser to ablate solid for introduction to ICP-MS. The main feature of ruby laser is ruby, flash tube, and elliptical reflector and trigger wire. Generally, crystal surface of one end is highly polished and silvered and the other end is partially polished. Ruby consists of aluminium oxide, Al2O3, to which has been added a small proportion (about 0.05% by mass) of Cr2O3. The ruby laser is totally based on the energy level principle. When chromium ion is excited from the ground level, this process is known as optical pumping. This is produced by an intense flash of white light from the flash tube and transition may occur. Spontaneous transitions produce photons, which trigger further emission. Photon travel perpendicular to the one end of the rod accumulates and release form the other end of the ruby rod which is partially silver polished. REMAINING Nd:YAG is widely uses in advance analytical practicals. Basically its work on different energy levels like ground level, meta stable level and pumping levels. In this system lasing occurs between the metastable levels. As the terminal level is essentially empty at room temperature, the population of E1 can be increased by a relatively small pump power above that of the E3 level. This is a significant advantage over the ruby system4. There is few influence of physical and chemical property of sample occurs because of aerosol particles generated by nanosecond laser ablation at 213 nm. The main problem of LA-ICP-MS is calibration strategy for a specific quantitative analysis. Different material have different matrix and when laser is introduce for ablation it may produce matrix â€Å"effect†. Matrix effect cause changes in volume and composition of the generated particles during thelaserbeam interaction with the different sample surfaces. To solve this problem we need to calibrat e the matrix match5. Principal of laser ablation A typical laser ablation system consists of laser, ablation process and detection system. Usually in this type of practical we use pulsed lasers. Argon or other inert gases typically carry the ablated sample into the ICP. Thermal and non- Thermal mechanism is involved in the ablation process but its depending on the wavelength of the laser. Test sample absorbed the laser light (thermal process) and transfer this energy into atomic lattice. Then outer layer of the sample breakdown and melting and vaporisation process may occur. Different chemical required different latent heat of vaporisation, researchers says that if the level of photon energy is more than the bounding energy between two atoms in a solid sample. The electromagnetic laser radiation breaks the atomic lattices and ejects ion and atoms without producing any heat.8 The following are the basic principle of laser ablation.6 Solid sample of a specific size is set up in a special design laser ablation chamber. Optical lens can be used for the investigation of solid specimen surface and select region to be analysed. The parallel radiation of solid state laser, gas laser or excimer laser with specific energy and time duration. Then introduce laser light directly onto the small region of sample with the help of optical lens. Ablated sample material range from nanogram to milligram produced by one or more laser shots consist of vaporised ions, small solid particles, solidified liquid droplets, free atoms and few clusters. If the vapours contain significant population of excited or ionized atoms, direct LA-AES and LA-MS for element analysis is possible. We can introduce ablated material in ICP as an aerosol by the flow of carrier gas; generally we use argon gas as a carrier. In second step ablated material is completely atomized, excited and ionised. The radiation of the atomic emission or the masses of isotopes species can be recorded with the help of different kind of detectors in spectrometers of LA-ICP-MS and LA-ICP-OES6. Principal of laser action remain.diagram An ideal solid sampling method should include the following features.6 Handle small and large sample size. Accurate measurement. Simple operation. Reproducible sampling. Simultaneous multi element analysis. Applicable to wide range of sample composition. Wide dynamic range. Variability from micro analysis to macro analysis. Acceptable cost of instrument and maintenance. Suitable method for quantification. Ablation stage.2 As we know the main feature of laser ablation lens, ablation chamber, and adjustable platform. Lens is fixed into optical microscope so that optical and visual focusing coincides and sample surface can be seen by CCD camera. Analytical sample is placed in a chamber which is made up of fused silica window. The adjustable chamber directly connected with computer and controls the position of sample in x, y, z directions. Few micron of displacement is achieved by this technique without any hindrance. Depending on the timing between individual laser pulses and platform movement, different tasks such as depth profiling, spatial profiling, surface and bulk analyzes are possible. If we applies laser ablation with inductive couple plasma, it require inert gas to transport the ablate sample to ICP. Argon and helium is widely use as a carrier gas. These gases provide better transportation and ablation rate. To improve transport efficiency, the sample or chamber is placed directly under the ICP torch. Detection system.2 ICP-MS Quadrupole mass analysers are used in inductive couple plasma mass spectrometry. However, time of flight, double focusing electro static- magnetic sector, multiple faraday Analogue detector instruments, ion trap mass analyser have been used with ICP-MS. Quadrupole mass analyser has a ability to scan between two different masses. We can measure 1000 masses in only one second. There is one disadvantage of using quadrupole mass analysers, if ablated vapour contains large particles so, it may produce some spatial changes such as enhancements or depressions in the signal level and chemistry. Double focusing electrostatic-magnetic sector instruments produce high resolution and very low background levels. For isotopes ratio applications usually we can use multiple faraday analogue detectors because its give a very high precision and time of flight instruments are better suited for laser ablation sampling ICP-MS. This system is able to remove the specific errors due to large particles in ICP.2 Ablation cells ref 3 Direct solid micro-analysis using Laser ablation Inductive couple plasma mass spectrometry has been used in many applications such as forensic, art, geo-sciences, material science, bio- science and cultural heritage. During the LA-ICP-MS measurement ablation cell plays an important role because it allows a quantitative transport aerosol and lead to a rapid transport from the ablation site to the ICP source. The guiding criteria were maximization of both aerosol extraction efficiency and transport speed. Usually there are two type of ablation cell is use in ablation system, open cell and a closed cell. The first open cell was invented in the year 1970 for flame atomic absorption spectrometry or microwave discharges. The cell size was a compromise between signal dispersion and minimization of aerosol spattering on the walls (so-called wall reaction), which is enhanced in reduced size cells. Dittrich and Wennrich first introduced fully enclosed ablation cell chamber. This system has many advantages like no sample preparation is required for ablation such as surface polishing, and at atmospheric pressure that permitted the direct analysis of pressed pellets, clearly unstable under vacuum conditions.ref 3 Sample prepration Calibration strategy There is no universal method of calibration for all of solid-sample types. There are three general groups of calibration strategies Calibration can then be achieved by comparing the response for the internal standard element in a reference material and the unknown.ref 5 Matrix-matched direct solid ablation ref 1 Matrix match is very popular technique for LA-ICP-MS. Matrix matching is necessary because the ablation rate varies with the sample matrix. Matrix matched standard consist of mixture of an appropriate matrix material with the analyte. Dual introduction (sample-standard) This method does not require the reference standards to be introduced by laser ablation.In this technique we use two sample introduction channels. One channel is for ablated material and another for nebulizer aqueous solution standards. Usually this method is used for semi-quantitative analysis with LA-ICP-MS. Direct liquid ablation Gunther et al. First demonstrate direct liquid ablation technique for LA- ICP-MS. Na (all elements) and Yb (rare earth elements only) were used as internal standards. To explain the similar ablation behaviour of liquids and solids, particle size distributions were measured and the contribution to the total ablation volume was calculated.ref 1 Sample introduction for LA-ICP-OES/MS ref 4 In many fields like clinical analysis, forensic, and biological the volume of sample available can be lower than 1 millilitre. The low sample consumption systems improve the analyte transport efficiencies afforded by conventional setups, some time solvent system may cause may type of interferences. It can be reduced by working at very low very low liquid flow rates. It can be observed that, in some cases, the sample volume is below 100ÃŽ ¼l. Usually, when liquid sample is analyse with the help of inductive couple plasma mass spectrometry or optical emission spectrometry. Nebulizers is use to transform liquid solution into an aerosol. A typically nebulizer deliver the solution with a specific rate on the order of 0.5-2ml/min. There are many different type of nebulizer is available such as, micro nebulizer, high efficiency nebulizer, micro concentric nebulizer, micro mist nebulizer, sonic spray nebulizer etc. Basic reason to use a nebulizer is to generate aerosol. Micro nebulizer is ve ry popular used in ICP-OES/MS. A micro nebulizer is used to generate stable aerosols at liquid flow rates below 100-200ÃŽ ¼l/min. Aerosol generation. Micro nebulizer provides finer aerosols, higher ICP sensitivities and lower limits of detection low liquid flow rates. A typical concentric nebulizer has lower capillary inner diameters and wall thickness than conventional ones. For conventional pneumatic nebulizers, the dimensions of liquid capillaries or the wall thickness and inner diameter are not appropriate for the generation of fine aerosols at low flow rates. It has been claimed that it is difficult to generate stable aerosols with conventional nebulizers at liquid flow rates below 300ÃŽ ¼l/min. In transport of liquid, if the flow rate is below then 100ÃŽ ¼l/min. So, solvent evaporation is enhanced and, on the other hand, droplet coalescence is dampened in the former situation. Solvent evaporation and aerosol characteristics at low liquid flow rate can be evaluated by this equation: D3 = d30 Et Where d is the drop diameter at a given time t, d0 is the initial drop diameter and E is the so-called evaporation factor. There are many different devices used for the introduction of liquid micro samples in ICP techniques. It can be classified into three different groups. A nebulizer coupled to a spray chamber; A nebulizer coupled to a desolvation system; A direct injection nebulizer. Micro nebulizers coupled to spray chambers: Usually in the analysis of micro samples, pneumatic concentric micro nebulizers are widely used with ICP-MS as well as ICP-OES/AES. High efficiency nebulizer {HEN}: First high efficiency nebulizer was invented in the year 1992. HEN is totally made up of glass. Its design is similar to a Meinhard ® but the critical dimension is less than the other one. It has many advantages like because of the reduced inner diameter of the capillary, even clean aqueous solutions must be filtered to avoid tip blockage caused by the presence of fibres or small particles. And due to the low cross section area of the gas exit, pressure of the gas is rather high. Micro concentric nebulizer (MCN) The micro concentric nebulizer can be easily introduced with double pass or cyclonic spray chambers by means of special end caps. MCN consist of polyamide narrow capillary and a t-shaped plastic body. The cross section area of the gas exit is very less. This gives a huge drawback because the aerosol is generated at the exit of the nebulizer where the gas stream has lost a fraction of its kinetic energy. MCN can be considered as a rather fragile nebulizer. This type of nebulizer is very popular in the application of inductive couple mass spectrometry and optical emission spectrometry because it provides great sensitivities than conventional pneumatic nebulizers. Micro mist nebulizer (MMN): The MMN is a modified glass conventional concentric nebulizer. Micro mist nebulizer has an ability to recess the liquid capillary with respect to the nebulizer tip. This important feature allows to working with high salt content solutions without suffering from nebulizer tip blockage. PFA micro nebulizer (PFAN): The PFA (tetrafluoroethylene-per-fluoroalkyl vinyl ether copolymer) micro nebulizer is an HF resistant. Basically this nebulizer is used for the analysis of samples containing high concentrations of organic solvents and dissolved solids. The PFA nebulizer has been extensively used under free aspiration mode. Usually this nebulizer is used for the analysis for extremely diluted samples without contamination from pump tubing and, at the same time, reduces the signal noise. Multi micro spray nebulizer (MMSN): The Multi micro spray nebulizer (MMSN) enhances the interaction efficiency between the gas and liquid streams. This is a modified version of the SSN. In this system the sample solution is divided into 3 parts, each one of the three capillaries employed is centred with three respective gas exit orifices and it has three aerosol generation points like three micro nebulizers. Thats why is called as multi micro spray nebulizer. Figures of merit demerit of LA-ICP-OES and LA-ICP-MS ref 8 The figures of merit are depending on the operating condition, instrumentation and applications of laser ablation inductive couple plasma mass spectrometry. The best advantage of LA-ICP-MS is sensitivity, detection efficiency, direct sampling multi element quantification at the surface and bulk for elemental composition of solids, Reduced risks of analyte loss or cross-contaminations, Determination of spatial distribution of elemental compositions, Independent of sample geometry, No chemical procedures and Analysis of very small samples.ref 8 The disadvantage of this technique is very less. Some time the common matrix and molecular species can interact with the active analyte or some double charged molecular species create difficulty in quantification. Applications of ICP-OES/MS 1) Recent applications on isotope ratio measurements by LA-ICP-MS (ref 9) LA-ICP-MS is a powerful and sensitive technique for analysing stable and radioactive isotopes in different application fields because of their low good accuracy, detection limits and precision. ICP-MS can be use for isotope ratio measurements of Mg, Ca and K in plants, soils and nutrient solutions. Serious difficulties were encountered during the analysis of K and Ca isotope by ICP-MS. The problem is rise because of the interferences. 2) LA-ICP-MS on biological samples and single particles (ref 9) New trend focus on isotope dilution technique together with neon flow injections. Today, LA-ICP-MS is very popular method for determination of metals, for example on protein bands in gels after the gel electrophoresis of protein mixtures. In future LA-ICP-MS could be able to improve in the resolution of sub-micrometer range for isotope ratio measurements in biological and medical samples. 3) LA-ICP-MS for the elemental analysis of bone and teeth samples for discrimination purposes ( ref 10) Human bone and teeth is useful evidence when found in crime scenes because it consists of isotopic property. Usually LA-ICP-SF-MS method is applied for analysis of bone and teeth. In this method non-matrix calibration is required and its only required micro gram of sample for analysis. This is a fast and easy elemental analysis technique using LA-ICP-SF-MS for the intra-inter human discrimination of skeletal remains. 4) LA-ICP-MS for surface analysis (ref 6 ) LA-ICP-MS is also used for the determination of lateral element distribution has also been described for ceramic layers and for profiling of metal layers. With the help of this technique we can measure the size of Al2O3, MgO and complex CaO, MgO and Al2O3. 5) Environmental applications and Geological applications (ref 1) LA-ICP-MS has a excellent capacity to determined chemical content present in tree samples because of the high spatial resolution provided by a focused laser beam. The excellent sensitivity of LA-ICP-MS allows measurements of very low detection limit and multiple quantitative analyses. Geochronology is one of the basic principles in earth sciences. Age can be determined by measuring the 206Pb/238U, 207Pb/235U, and 207Pb/206Pb ratios. LA-ICP-MS has the ability to do spatially resolved in-situ determination of U_Pb isotopic compositions in zircons. 6) The emerging role of ICP-MS in proteomic analysis {ref 11} ICP-MS stands now as a new tool in the field of quantitative proteomics. The system to be analysed may be very small e.g. a single cell, with 0.5 pL volume and ca. 50 pg total protein content. The below diagram describe the emerging role of mass spectroscopy. Recent trends and developments in laser ablation-ICP-mass spectrometry Now, laser technology is not a new thing in any field. Laser is widely used in different programs such as for medical applications, for micro-machining, in CD-players, light shows and in analytical chemistry. As we know that laser is used for direct analysis of the elemental composition of solids, mostly solid state lasers, such as Nd:YAG laser with at 1064 nm wavelength is very popular in the determination of many things. But the trend moves towards the shorter wavelengths 1064 nm to 157 nm. In laser ablation set up we can use excimer lasers with different wavelength like XeCl 308 nm, KrF 248 nm, ArF 193 nm, and F2 157 nm. Laser ablation inductive couple plasma is one of the flexible and powerful technique in analytical field for isotope ratio measurement and direct determination of solids. A variety of calibration techniques have been developed and successfully applied to LA-ICP-MS. There is a great development with respect to calibration strategies. Intensively study is going on t he matrix-independent calibration procedures using external reference materials and/or internal standardization. Ref 12 Determination of boron in silicon wafers with the help of on-line isotope dilution laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) method. This is a new and successful method. In this technique ablated aerosol sample was mixed on-line with enriched boron and conventional nebulizer system is used for continuous supply. By the mixing of two different aerosols, isotope ratio of boron has been changed and it is recorded by ICP-MS system. In this system accurately quantifies boron concentrations in silicon wafers without the need for an internal or external solid reference standard material. On-line solution-based isotope dilution in laser ablation ICP-MS is an accurate, simple, precise and quantification procedure. Below the process diagram of on-line isotope dilution LA-ICP-MS There is a still study and research on the new calibration method combine with IDA and LA-ICP-MS without using standard reference materials. In future we will focus on the applicability of this on-line LA-ICP-IDMS quantification concept to the determination of trace analytes in various other matrices.ref 13 Refrence. ( Laser ablation in analytical chemistry—a review Science direct. Solid sample analysis using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry Volume 24, Issue 3, March 2005, Pages 255-265Trace-metal analysis Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy Volume 65, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 51-60 Influence of physical properties and chemical composition of sample on formation of aerosol particles generated by nanosecondlaser ablationat 213nm First Laser ablation principle and application Google book. Laser in analytical atomic spectrometry google book. Laser ablation in analytical chemistry—a review science direct

Sunday, January 19, 2020

The Poets and Writers of the Harlem Renaissance :: Authors

The Poets and Writers of the Harlem Renaissance The Harlem Renaissance was a great time of achievement for the black poets and writers of the 1920s and early '30s. Many had a hard life living in the Harlem district of New York city. The foundations of this movement were laid in the social and political thought of the early 20th century. One of the most famous of these black political leaders was W.E.B. DuBois. DuBois was the editor of the influential magazine "The Crisis." In this magazine he repeatedly rejected the notion that blacks could achieve social equality by following white ideals and standards. He strongly strove for the renewal of black racial pride through increased emphasis on their African culture and heritage. Langston Hughes, another writer of the Harlem Renaissance, is known and remembered for writing during the movement, but not being guided by a common literary purpose. The only issue that greatly influenced his writings was his own experiences with being an African American. Langston Jughes poems and writings realistically depicted the life of black Americans. These were lives and situations many people outside their race knew nothing about. His work was of high quality and won a favorable reception from the major publishing houses, who were willing to promote his writings only for commercial reasons. Many of these publishing houses stressed their notion of Harlem as an alien, but also as an exotic and unknown place of strange new wonders. During the Harlem Renaissance, Hughes had four major writings that promoted the African Negritude Movement. The first was a critical essay entitled "The Negro Artist and the Racial Movement," which discussed the excitement of this time period. Later, he would write "The Big Sea," an autobiography stating the hardships in his life due to his race. The other two influentioal writings of Hughes, was his two poems, "The Weary Blues" and "Fine Clothes to the Jew." Both were experimental in content and form, which made Jughes leary of their acceptance. Fortunately, they both were accepted and provided a much needed strength to the movement. Langston Hughes is greatly remembered for his genius for merging the comic and the pathetic. His works also influenced many humorists and satirists. But of all his gifts to society, his most enduring was his belief in the commonality of all cultures and the universality of human suffering.

Saturday, January 11, 2020

The Book Gender

In chapter six of the book Gender: Ideas, Interactions and Institutions, Lisa Wade and Myra Marx Ferree discuss inequality involving men and masculinities. The reading talks about the concept of â€Å"doing gender†, braking or going by certain gender rules, is performed by everyone in order to fit into society. The concept that there are two genders, otherwise known as gender binary, is hierarchical and places men above women and values masculinity above femininity. (Wade 113). This has bad outcomes for both genders due to the fact that for women, it reduces their social status. For men, it leads them to believe their interests take more priority than women. The chapter then discusses an example of this with cheerleading where in the mid 1800s, cheerleading was an all male sport and it was â€Å"too masculine for women.† When women showed interest in the sport, it changed how people thought of cheerleading. The focus on the chapter is to show the different ways social inequality occurs and gives different examples of situations in which certain traits of masculinity are glorified, allowing certain men to be glorified. The chapter continues through talking about hegemony; a sociological concept used to help us understand this social inequality in our society. Men who fail to embody hegemonic masculinity, otherwise known as being the â€Å"idealized man† are lower on the scale that establishes the hierarchy of man that ranks them from most to least masculine. The traits of a â€Å"higher up man† would include strength, white, athletic and be considered a â€Å"real man.† This is experienced on both the individual and group level, because individual men are viewed as a certain way, but are put into distinct groups because of it. An example of this is men who are physically weak are called â€Å"wimps†, but solely based on their individual traits. Men take many risks in their lives and are shown to be more likely to get into a fight than a woman. (Wade 129). Research was done to show the different arrests based on an individual's sex. It showed that all crimes were over 50% male with murder, rape and carrying weapons being the greatest percentage over 80%. These rules of masculinity keep men from being able to express certain emotions, even enough to develop intimate friendships. A psychologist named Niobe Way interviewed boys about their friendships, with a 17 year old mind answering that their relationship is mostly â€Å"joking around† and â€Å"not about serious stuff.† This proves the argument that men have to follow the gender rules of masculinity, which is unfair because they feel unable to show emotions while women are more likely to seek help. Men become lonely and are more likely to commit suicide. These aspects of doing gender as a man are called toxic masculinity, because they are bad for other men, women and the individual man himself. These include some of the traits explained above, like suppressing emotion and dangerous actions. The authors were able to prove their argument of certain men being put over others, especially women. Those hegemonic traits allow them to avoid femininity and contribute to the sexist society we are in today. Avoiding acting like a girl is constraining to men, and limit their lives option in order to remain a â€Å"manly man.† There are lots of research involving examples of men giving up all feminine acts or of their masculine traits giving them power over â€Å"weaker† men, but especially women. In preforming in strictly manly activities, men tend to miss out of things they may enjoy just because they are considered more â€Å"feminine.† Men continue this act of masculinity to preserve the privileges and the gender binary that gives hegemonic masculinity its power (Wade 136). They choose to follow the rules, or appear as lower in the hierachy. Wherever they fall though, they all have a fear of joining the men who are disadvantaged and in the lower parts of the hiarchy. Some future studies about this idea of men challenging the gender binary. Few men do, while many women are less afraid to do so. Research could involve what men would be more likely to challenge the gender rules and face falling lower, and how those men would affect our society with them performing more feminine acts. Understanding both men and women's experiences and perspective can help us better perform gender to where both genders actions aren't constrained to the binary gender system.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Critique Of Hegel s Philosophy Of Right - 957 Words

According to Marx â€Å"we do not attempt dogmatically to prefigure the future, but want to find the new world only through criticism of the old† (MER 13). Criticism is an active practice that involves gaining a knowledge and understanding of the past to improve its problems. A problem Marx sees in his time is the passive dogmatists that deal with abstractions such as idealism, or religion. He instead wants to offer a solution through the concrete: history and criticism, particularly that of religion, philosophy, and political economy. Beginning with Marx’s Contribution to the Critique of Hegel’s Philosophy of Right, is the critique of religion. He states that the basis of religious criticism is that â€Å"man makes religion; religion does not make man† (53). In a religious society man has lost himself in an abstraction, marveling in the very God he created, which he states is an â€Å"inverted world conscious† (53). By criticizing religion it allow s man to regain reason and create his own reality rather than focusing on the abstract such as heaven. Once we have criticized religion and removed ourselves from the illusions of religion, the criticism will then lead into a progression of criticism leading into politics, â€Å"the criticism of religion into the criticism of law, and the criticism of theology into the criticism of politics† (54). Marx then leads in to the criticism of history, where criticism of the past will then bring us an understanding to better criticize the present, andShow MoreRelatedVisions Of Reforms And Reformation1488 Words   |  6 PagesWhere is progress bringing us? In A Vindication of the Rights of Woman: with Strictures on Political and Moral Subjects (1792), Wollstonecraft described the concept of progress as consisting in the basic ideas of moral equality and reason. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Maya angelou and richard wright - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1565 Downloads: 4 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Maya Angelou and Richard Wright: The Dream of Freedom Graduation is the best day of ever young kids life, its almost as important as learning to read and write. But in reference to both being very important, racism and segregation has played the biggest factor of them all in both Graduation and The Library Card. Graduation, by Maya Angelou describes the anger from racism and pride of graduation day at her segregated school. Similarily, in his article, The Library Card, Richard Wright describes his struggle and frustration that he faces in the process for borrowing books due to the Jim Crow laws and his reaction towards the unfair treatment of Negros in the South. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Maya angelou and richard wright" essay for you Create order I believe that most students in the world have experienced some from of racism during their school years, either from teachers, from their peers, or through an overt or covert curriculum. But in contrast to racism and segregation in these two essays, they both show that, in order for African Americans to survive they have to overcome far more situations than just whites., they had to show pride, self-respect, and courage to keep fighting through hard times. Both Maya Angelou and Richard Wright utilized various similar and distinct ideas. They both did not have accessibly to good education; they both saw light down the road to further education; Due to education both started hating white Southerners; both become discouraged/dissatisfied and then later look forward to being free for once in their segregated lives. Imagine how it would fl to have omon of nothr race pk at your graduation and put your race down. This is the story of Graduation written by my nglou. In this story we how young black girl wit with grt pride and nticiption her graduation day. When the day finally rriv, her drm and xpcttion or hdowd by the pch that Mr. Donlvy, whit man, gave to the graduating cl of 1940. At the and of the story we how the cl vldictorin, Henry Rd com back with ncourging word that help the entire udinc become live and fl like they war on top gin. My nglou ud very important literary lmnt in this story called ton. Ton is the attitude the pkr h toward thmlv, their ubjct, and their udinc. In this c the pkr in this story is the young black girl. In the beginning of the story the black girl pk with pride and lf-confidnc. He think very highly of hrlf when he tt, I w going to be lovely. walking modal of all the various tyl of fin hand wing nd it didnt worry m tht I w only twlv yr old nd mrly grduting from th ighth grd (nglou, pp.56-80). In th middl of th tory w that th girl is ngry nd dippointd t th outcom of Angelous grdution. explained earlier, Mr. Donlvy ddrd hr grduting cl with continuou rmrk bout th whit cl. H wnt on to y tht th whit kid wr going to hv chnc to bcom the Glilo nd Mdm Curi nd dion nd Guguin (nglou, p.23). Th young girl couldnt bliv wht h w hring: Grdution, huh-huh mgic tim of frill nd gift nd congrtultion nd diplom, w finihd for m bfor my nm w clld. Th ccomplihmnt was nothing. Donlvy hd xpod us. (Angelou pg. 110) In thi ntnc w cn ctully fl th frutrtion nd ngr h flt. t th nd of th tory w how hr mood chngd from bing ngry to fling proud of hrlf nd hr rc onc gin. Thi w th outcom of pom rd by hr cl vldictorin, Hnry Rd: Th word of Ptrick Hnry hd md uch n imprion on m tht I hd bn bl to trtch mylf tll nd trmbling nd, I know not wht cour othr my tk but for m, giv m librty or giv m dth (nglou, pp.120-125). In thi ntnc th young girl fl proud to b blck nd a prt of th grduting cl of 1940. h put id ll th wful rmrk md by Mr. Donlvy nd rjoicd with th ncourging word givn by Hnry Rd. h w proud of hr rc nd proud to b grduting du to hr full cdmic ccomplihmnt. The Library Card, by Richard Wright had contrasted various similar ideas as to Maya Angelou. Though Wright was prohibited by the Jim Crow laws to borrow books from the library, he imbibed knowledge of learning to read and write from the help of Mr. Falk. Mr. Falk was an Irish Catholic and was hated by the white Southeners. To show the high degree of security Wright felt in asking Mr. Falk for his library card and for breaking the Southern White Law. Wright, a nigger boy, prefers to ask Mr. Falk to borrow his library card for H.L. Menchkens book because all of themNegros, Mr. Falk, and H.L. Menckenhave the similarity of the little girl in Maya Angelous essay; they all were hated by the white Southeners. Since both, Mr. Falk nad Wright, are hated by Southern whites, Mr. Falk would not snitch on him for having an intention to break a Southern Whites law of not allowing Negros to borrow books from the library. Like Maya Angelou, Richard Wrights only accessibility to education came from the books he borrowed from the library. As reading grew into a passion (Wright pg 431) to Wright and his capability of looking at world began to differ, he unknowingly begins to desire freedom. Wright terms desire of freedom into vague, unformed yearning (Wright 433) because he had never before been enlightened to the freedom of such a degree as he had been from reading. This enlightenment makes him desire freedom further. However, Jim Crow laws prevented Wright from fulfilling his desire. Thus, he feels dissatisfied for being a Negro and not being able to pursue his desire. Since southern whites developed Jim Crow laws, he hates them. Wright clearly points out his hatred for southern whites when he writes I could fight the southern whites (Wright 434). He also hates his fellow-Negros who empowers whites over their Negro self. To show his disapproval with his fellow-Negros Wright refers to them as being col d (Wright 434). As a result, to put an end to his dissatisfaction and hate, Wright begins to plan for the trip [to] North (Wright 434). By the enlightenment, Richard Wright empowers himself by elevating his pride, self-respect, and courage to rebel against the southern whites. After being enlightened about how others rebelled against southern whites, Wright denies living a life of a slave and writes I would hate myself as much as those who submitted (Wright 434) to show the increment in self-respect .Wright desires to rebel against southern whites. By reading H. L. Mencken books, Wright realized how Mencken was rebelling against southern whites through his writing (Wright 428-429). Thus, by admitting that he wants to be a good writer, Wright hints of his desire to rebel against southern whites through writing. Even though Wright knows southern whites hate people who speak against them, his decision to rebel against southern whites shows his high degree of courage. Maya Angelou and Richard Wright gave a new meaning to education for all African Americans. As learning to read and write grew among slaves, it gave birth to the desire of freedom through writing rebellion, in which Richard Wright masters his own raging demon, slashing with his pen (Wright pg. 433-434) imagination. The rebellion then shapes into a revolution for equal rights and then with the little aid of Rosa Parks by not seating and the great contribution of Dr. Martin Luther King JR. by never backing down, the revolution succeeds and gives a birth to the America of equal opportunity as known today. Today, Barrack Obama, an African-American, is the president of America. There is no doubt that Barrack Obamas success is the fruit of the some tree whose roots correspond to Maya Angelou and Richard Wrights struggle. They were heros to the African Americans not only for standing up and showing pride, self-respect and courage, but by enlightening the hearts with a passion to succeed for ward.